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Time Magazine 2010 Top Ten Scientific Discoveries: Ancient dinosaur horn length
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Dec. 10 message, U.S. "Time" magazine selected the top ten scientific discoveries of 2010, including the existence of the planet had horned dinosaurs, robotic exploration, and underground pyramid Mexico 西哥特奥蒂 Wakan than astronomers had expected the moon, including water series that have made the list. Top ten list of scientific discovery is as follows: 1. The earth was on long horned dinosaurs 15 Earth horned dinosaurs had existed First, to remind the reader that we are talking about the real angle. Long gorgeous angle (scientific name Kosmoceratops) living in 76 million years ago, the weight of 5500 pounds (about 2,500 kg), habitats in Utah now, its huge head angle of 15 ministers. University of Utah in 2007 during a scientific expedition discovered the gorgeous horn dragon bones, but not until September 2010, scientists and formally describe the dinosaur to be named. Skeleton results to scientists surprised they did not think North America in 6500 million years ago actually live in this strange dinosaur. Gorgeous living in coastal areas of Long Point, Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway area is their home. This is an area of huge sea lanes of water, the continent into two. 2. Asymmetric behavior of the neutral B meson Asymmetric behavior of the neutral B meson In the U.S. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in the collision, the behavior of the neutral B mesons show asymmetry. If symmetrical, you and I will not exist in this world. Traditional particle physics point of view, the big bang produced during the same amount of matter and antimatter, but this is impossible because matter and antimatter would be relatively "annihilate" each other. The only possibility is that the balance a little substance to the direction of tilt in favor and eventually the formation of the universe. This is a persuasive theory, but has not been found in experiments of this phenomenon, until 2010, the impact experiments at Fermilab. Conducted at Fermilab particle collision experiment, the scientists found that the resulting meson (a heavy electron) count more than the number of anti-meson of about 1%. Although 1% is not much, but in the very distant past, this 1% advantage sufficient to induce formation of the universe. 3. Lunar water than expected Moon water than expected The lunar surface, you can see dust and small and large stones, but you most certainly want to see is water. Water is to determine whether we break new ground on the moon as a critical factor. According to the development of astronomers found that the moon is a water world level than previously expected wet. NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (hereinafter referred to as LCROSS) mission staged the discovery. At that time, out of fuel booster rockets hit near the lunar south pole, through the plume of the impact analysis of stirred, LCROSS satellite reached this conclusion. Plume of water vapor found in not such big news - at least trace the lunar polar permafrost - really surprising is that the moon above the water than astronomers estimated about 50%, the moisture level is about twice the Sahara desert. Although the water can not be compared with the Earth, but enough to meet the needs of future lunar explorers, they can make the best of, obtain the required water. It is much easier to transport water from the earth and lower cost. 4. Robot exploration in Mexico pyramid Robotic exploration of Mexico pyramid Teotihuacan, Mexico (Teotihuacan) pyramid had always been one of North America's archaeological treasures. The pyramids and other ancient cities have been moving track is the mystery. In 2010, Secret finally cracked the door of Teotihuacan a gap, when a robot equipped with a camera was ordered to perform underground archaeological exploration mission, and eventually found a 12 feet (3.65 m) wide corridor the top of the well-preserved vault. Corridor was built in about 2000 years ago, was sealed after they built. Archaeologists believe that this corridor could lead to a high priest of the graves. If you put on this discovery, archaeologists be able to understand the construction of this Central American city's life. 5. Senescence specific gene can cause Specific genes can cause aging Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie of age and we are similar, but why look younger than we do? One reason may be surrounded in the TERC gene DNA sequences are different. TERC gene can generate a telomerase, the enzyme helps regulate telomere length. Telomeres at both ends of all chromosomes, and its role is similar to the protection of ends of a shoelace material to prevent wear. In the normal metabolic processes, each cell must be split, and eventually die, and each cell division when telomeres are shortened accordingly, leading to chromosome wear, and wear the same chromosome aging-related diseases are closely linked. British scientists published in the "Genetics" magazine paper, they found through research, people carrying TERC gene, shorter telomeres, the case with those who did not carry TERC gene, they are older than 3 to similar to 4-year-old man, in other words, TERC gene carrying the aging speed 3 to 4 years. , Published in "Nature" magazine reports on another study, Harvard University School of Medicine researchers to premature activation of the telomerase gene in mice, reverse the aging process; results out of the rat organ regeneration, the brain has been reduced have increased, fertility has been restored. Theoretically, manipulation of the telomerase gene can slow the aging process, or at least slow down age-related diseases, human development rate. However, there is cause for caution: rapidly dividing, long life span of cells known as cancer cells, which means that for longevity may ultimately produce a very different consequences. 6. Planets surge Surge in the number of planets Implemented in the United States decennial census of the same year, astronomers also continue to look for planets outside our solar system lurking. They found a large number of new "celestial citizens." For example, HIP 13044b, which is running the world around a star, the star was not even in the Milky Way. 127 light years away from Earth in the HD 10180 stars, a maximum of seven newly discovered planet around its rotation. The most exciting news is that the discovery of Gliese 581g, this is the first one ever found its star in a so-called "habitable zone" of the extrasolar planets. "Habitable zone" means there is neither too cold nor too hot conditions, may be suitable for life to exist. This area may be really a fairy tale, because the follow-up study now the existence of the planet Gliese 581g questioned. However, few scientists doubt that the universe has more planet, and soon they will find no trace of doubt. 7. Invisibility cloak Invisibility cloak When the scientists as "space-time cloak" more serious things like fantasy, they are either very smart or is crazy. Imperial College London physicist 马丁麦卡尔 (Martin McCall) are not to crazy. In the "optical" (Optics) magazine, Professor McAlpine described the "metamaterial" and the other through molecular engineering can disrupt the normal flow of electromagnetic capacity theory of possibility of the material in the form. Light through the substance, when not even in the event, which is generated in the gap of time and space. This is really a little obscure, McAlpine gave a vivid example to illustrate this theory: A thief entered the room, things will be safe inside looted, and then run away, but the surveillance video was not captured in this process. This theory a bit flawed, that, given the speed of light travel, even a few minutes to be invisible, we need to cloak up to 1 million meters. 8. South Africa found that one species of a new class Species in South Africa found a new class of people Scientists in South Africa Mala Pa (Malapa) were found in two caves about 200 million years old hominid fossil, one belonging to the boy, the other with are adult women. In April this year, published in the "Science" magazine paper, the scientists said the fossils would fill an important gap in human evolutionary history because at that particular stage of human history, what happened, today's skeleton is almost retained no. Paleontologist who has been on the new class of species - the source species of Australopithecus (Australopithecus sediba) the importance of consensus, some people think it is a dead-end into the evolution, modern man has little to do with us. However, in view of the source species of Australopithecus skeleton both ancient and relatively modern double character, at least that it is the direct ancestors of Homo erectus, Homo erectus, in turn, are the ancestors of Homo sapiens, and Homo sapiens is the one including you I included all of modern populations. 9. Potential new elements The new element in the A potential new elements such as lead, iron and uranium elements can not be compared with the 117, which temporarily is named something of element 117 is a heavy isotope of the Pei and a mixture of calcium, which is 俄罗斯杜布satisfied in a particle accelerator generated. This new element fleeting, it is in order to obtain a place in the periodic table, you must first generate it in other places independently. However, even if it is unstable, the moment will disappear, it still hopes to become a member in the periodic table. Man-made elements heavier stability worse, but when they reach a limit, the stability of these elements will become longer and longer. Element 117 is located at the piece of higher arc, indicating that physicists so-called "island of stability (islands of stability)" may really exist, the most important of all elements can last for months or years to . Now, it seems that new members will increase the periodic table. 10. Kick the cat to drink water not wet the mystery of the chin and beard Kick the cat to drink water not wet chin and mustache mystery Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University and Virginia Polytechnic Institute to the latest evidence, and open a cat drinking milk is how to do not wet the chin and beard. The researchers analyzed a large number of high-speed video to determine when the dog a drink, volume growth will handle spoon-shaped tongue, used to scoop up the liquid, while the cat's movements more graceful, it will curl the tongue down and gently touch the liquid surface licking the water, the cat's tongue four times a second where you can lick. High-speed cat tongue downward, then quickly pulling up in the gravity, inertia, and the role of fluid dynamics, each about 0.1 ml of liquid you can drink, this process does not have the water overflow. The discovery is currently no practical value, but that nothing.